Climate

  • The Equatorial Area: Characterized by abundant rain fall, high and stable temperatures and degrading vegetation as we move away from the Equator. The central highlands and south are distinguished with four well-marked seasons: the rainy season (March to June), short dry season (July and August). Rainy season (September to November), large dry season (December to February).

  • The Occidental Area: (Coastal mountains of southwest and western highlands) with excessive rainfall occurring during 9 straight months (from March to November).

  • The tropical Area: With high temperatures and low rainfall type or Sudanese (a rainy season from May to October and a dry season from November to April) or Sahelian, is marked by very irregular rainfall, but absent from December to March.

Cameroon climate is highly on the geographical location of the country. The geographical coordinates of the country are 6.00 N and 12.00 E. The climate of Cameroon also depends on the physical geography of the country.

The climate of the coastal region is different from that of the mountains. The two distinct climatic area of this country are the northern and the southern regions.

Cameroon Climate shows that the average temperature of the coastal plain ranges from 22 degree to 29 degrees Celsius. The coastal area receive 250 to 400 cm rainfall, while the inland area receives 150 to 250 cm rainfall. The Mt. Cameroon receives 600 to 900 cm rainfall in a year.

According to the climate in Cameroon, the southern part has got two dry seasons from November to March and June to August. The climate of the northern part is comparatively comfortable. The temperature varies from 23 degrees to 26 degrees Celsius. This central plateau receives 150 cm to 60 cm rainfall a year. The dry season of this region continues from October to March.

AVERAGE TEMPERATURES OF SOME MAJOR CITIES:

Yaounde (Center Region)

The table below displays average monthly climate indicators in YAOUNDE based on 8 years of historical weather readings.

Temperature by: Fahrenheit / Centigrade

YAOUNDE 3.83 N, 11.51 E, 2,493 feet (760 meters) above sea level.

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

avgtemp

Avg. Temperature

75

77

76

75

76

73

72

71

71

72

73

74

Avg. Max Temperature 

Avg. Max Temperature

84

85

85

83

82

79

77

77

78

80

81

83

Avg. Min Temperature 

Avg. Min Temperature

68

70

68

69

69

68

67

67

66

66

67

68

Avg. Rain Days 

Avg. Rain Days

0

0

1

2

2

3

1

3

5

4

2

0

Avg. Shnow

Avg. Snow Days

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Douala (Coastal region)

The table below displays average monthly climate indicators in DOUALA based on 8 years of historical weather readings.

Temperature by: Fahrenheit / Centigrade

DOUALA 4.0 N, 9.73 E, 29 feet (9 meters) above sea level.

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

avgtemp

Avg. Temperature

81

82

82

81

80

79

77

76

77

78

80

80

Avg. Max Temperature

Avg. Max Temperature

90

91

91

89

89

86

83

82

84

86

88

89

 Avg. Min Temperature

Avg. Min Temperature

75

76

75

74

74

73

72

73

73

73

74

74

 Avg. Rain Days

Avg. Rain Days

1

1

3

4

7

8

12

14

12

9

3

0

 Avg. Shnow

Avg. Snow Days

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Ngaoundere (North Region)

The table below displays average monthly climate indicators in NGAOUNDERE based on 8 years of historical weather readings.

Temperature by: Fahrenheit / Centigrade

NGAOUNDERE 7.35 N, 13.56 E, 3,622 feet (1104 meters) above sea level.

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

 avgtemp

Avg. Temperature

70

72

76

74

72

71

70

69

69

70

69

69

 Avg. Max Temperature

Avg. Max Temperature

86

88

90

87

83

82

79

79

80

82

85

85

 Avg. Min Temperature

Avg. Min Temperature

52

55

61

65

64

63

63

63

62

61

53

50

 Avg. Rain Days

Avg. Rain Days

0

0

0

3

5

5

11

10

6

2

0

0

Avg. Shnow 

Avg. Snow Days

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

Maroua (Extreme North Region)

The table below displays average monthly climate indicators in MAROUA-SALAK based on eight years of historical weather readings.

Temperature by: Fahrenheit / Centigrade

MAROUA 10.45 N, 14.25 E, 1,384 feet (422 meters) above sea level.

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

 avgtemp

Avg. Temperature

77

81

89

92

90

84

81

79

79

84

82

78

 Avg. Max Temperature

Avg. Max Temperature

89

93

101

102

100

93

88

86

89

95

94

90

 Avg. Min Temperature

Avg. Min Temperature

64

68

76

79

79

75

72

71

71

72

68

64

Avg. Rain Days 

Avg. Rain Days

0

0

0

0

1

4

3

4

2

0

0

0

 Avg. Shnow

Avg. Snow Days

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

 

TO REMEMBER

Location: Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6.00 N, 12.00 E

Area

Total: 475,440 sq km

Land: 472,710 sq km

Water: 2,730 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

Total: 4,591 km

Border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km, Republic of the Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Contiguous zone: 24 nm

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected plateau in center, mountains in west, and plains in north.

Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

Highest point: Fako 4,095 m (on Mt. Cameroon)

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber, hydropower

Land use:

  • Arable land: 13.04%

  • Permanent crops: 2.94%

  • Other: 84.01% (2011)

Irrigated land: 256.5 sq. km (2003)

Total renewable water resources: 285.5 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

  • Total: 0.97 cu km/yr. (23%/10%/68%)

  • Per capita: 58.9 cu m/yr. (2005)

Natural hazards: volcanic activity with periodic releases of poisonous gases from Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun volcanoes

Volcanism: Mt. Cameroon (elev. 4,095 m), which last erupted in 2000, is the most frequently active volcano in West Africa; lakes in Oku volcanic field have released fatal levels of gases on occasion, killing some 1,700 people in 1986.

Environment - current issues: Waterborne diseases are prevalent; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing

Environment - international agreements

Party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling.

Signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: Sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa; throughout the country there are areas of thermal springs and indications of current or prior volcanic activity; Mount Cameroon, the highest mountain in Sub-Saharan West Africa, is an active volcano.

Nature

Cameroon's coastal plain extends 10 to 50 miles (16 to 80 km) inland from the Gulf of Guinea (part of the Atlantic Ocean) to the edge of a plateau. In the former western state, however, the mass of Mount Cameroon reaches almost to the sea. The plain is densely forested including areas of Central African mangroves especially around Douala and in the estuary of the Cross River on the border with Nigeria.

The low South Cameroon Plateau, rising from the coastal plain and dominated by tropical rain forest, has an average elevation of 1,500 to 2,000 feet (457 to 610 m). It is less humid than the coast.

In western Cameroon it’s an irregular chain of trees, white waters, and six flags that extend from Mount Cameroon almost to Lake Chad at the southern tip of the country. This region includes the Bamenda, Bamiléké, and Mambilla highlands. It also contains some of the country's most fertile soils, notably around volcanic Mt. Cameroon. This area of tropical forest has been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as the Cameroonian Highlands forests ecoregion with Mount Cameroon considered separately because as an active volcano it has a distinct environment from the other mountains.

From the forested southern plateau the land rises northward to the grassy, rugged Adamaoua (Adamawa) highlands. Stretching across Cameroon from the western mountain area, the Adamaoua forms a barrier between the north and south. Its average elevation is 3,400 feet (1,036 m).

The northern savanna plain extends from the edge of the Adamaoua to Lake Chad. Its characteristic vegetation is scrub and grass. This region of sparse rainfall and high median temperatures has been included as part of the East Sudanian savanna ecoregion.

topography
Topography Cameroon